First settled in the early 1870s. After 1875, Tascosa became a shipping point for several Texas ranches, including the famed XIT and LIT. The town was known as "the Cowboy Capital of the Plains." It became the Oldham County seat in 1880. The famous and infamous-from Kit Carson to Billy the Kid-once strode its rough-plank sidewalks. Decline set in when the open range was fenced and the railroad bypassed the site. It was deserted by the 1930s.