Like many towns and cities in Texas, Cedar Park, on the banks of Brushy Creek, was originally settled by Native Americans. The expansion of cattle trails and railroads made the hills surrounding Austin an ideal location for day trips for hunters. The high quality of the granite quarried in the area established commerce and created permanent settlements, among them Brueggerhoff, which is now Cedar Park.
In 1973, a prehistoric archeological site six miles east of the city was discovered by the Texas Department of Transportation as it was excavating for the expansion of F.M. 1431. More than 150 fireplaces and campsites were uncovered. In 1982, archeologists discovered the skeleton of a human female, 10,000–13,000 years old, that became known as the "Leanderthal Lady." This archeological find is noted by a historical marker.
The city voted to incorporate in 1973. Growth has paralleled Austin's growth to the northwest along U.S. 183.